1. This small group activity is designed to help upper-division undergraduate students to understand, graphically, the orthogonality among sinusoidal functions whose frequencies are multiples of a fundamental frequency.
  2. Students are presented with different pairs of harmonic basis functions and asked to determine graphically whether the integral of the product of the two functions over one period of the fundamental is non-zero. Groups then calculate the integral analytically to compare with the previous task.
  3. The compare and contrast wrap-up discussion revolves around the concepts of projection and orthogonality, and introduces the Kronecker delta notation.

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